BAS -  Building Automation Systems

 

The Building Automation System is an intelligent system that aloud to control and manage building.  Building infrastructure include mechanical and electrical equipment, sensors and telecommunication network.  The BAS monitor building air quality, temperature, lights, occupancy, devices performance, and through a CCTV monitor building.  BAS also has option for staff management, and building maintenance and energy expenses.  Building with the BAS intelligent system is a Smart Building.

Energy Management Systems for Buildings

 

The Building Energy Management Systems - BEMS integrates four systems:

Building Automation System - BAS

Telecommunications System - TS

Office Automation System - OAS

Computer Aided Facility Management System – CAFMS

In the early 1980s, BEMS consisted of a simple workstation storing data related to buildings management.  Today’s large BEMS has a central station and a number of outstations for collecting information sent by sensors monitoring building infrastructure.  The BAS system communicates with each its parts through a Local Area Network (LAN) network. The main segments of the BAS systems are energy management systems, lighting control systems, and fire detection and suppression systems.

Smart Building

(Sources: U.S. EPA, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/sqg/c&d-rpt.pdf ; http://www.p2pays.org/ref/03/02026.pdf )

Energy Consumption in the U.S. Buildings

 

The United States produces 25 % of global greenhouse gas emissions; of that, buildings emit 48 % of that emission.  The 40 % of that comes from burning fossil fuels (136 million tons annually).  In municipal buildings, solid waste contains of 31 % of the Mercury (Hg).  Buildings electricity and natural gas cost over $80 billion dollar/year.  Of the country’s total consumption, the U. S. buildings consume about 70% of electricity, 12 % of water, 30% of raw materials, 8 % of petroleum, and 53 % of natural gas.  Buildings use nearly a quarter of the country’s total electrical energy for lightings.  While the life span of a typical non-residential facility is over 75 years, public schools about 60 years the spending for energy bills can easily surpass the price of a building.. 

Resid Builds Commercial Builds2

Source: ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDY INSTITUTE, Energy Efficiency Fact Sheet, Release: May 2006

Key Facts for Energy Efficient Building

 

Building Orientation

A buildings location and its surroundings play a key role in regulating its temperature and energy needed for lightings.  Trees and hills provide shade and can block wind.  Building with east-west orientation and south-facing windows can decrease energy consumption.

 

Building Envelop

The energy-efficient windows, sealed doors, walls insulation, basement slabs, and solid foundations can reduce heat loss by 25-50%. However, tightly insulated buildings may require ventilation.

 

Roofs

Dark roof is up to 70° F hotter than the most reflective white roof surface.  A light-colored roof uses 40 % less of energy for cooling than building with a dark roof.  In hot climate lite color roof is recommended, in cool climate dark roof reduces energy cost for heating.

 

Lightings

Reducing cost for lightings can be achieved by big windows and skylights.  The fluorescent bulbs use two-thirds less energy and last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs.  Sensors and dimmers also is an additional way to reduce lightings expenses.  

 

Home Appliances

Buying energy-efficient appliances is a smart investment.  For example, Energy Star refrigerators reduce energy consumption of 40 %. An advanced power management system is recommended.  

 

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Air Leaks listing

Source:DOE BUILDINGSDATABOOK2013[EERE.ENERGY.GOV]

Source: Andy Jefferson “Home Sealing Improving Energy Cost”, EPA T0958_DIY_Guide 2006new.indd

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